Incredible India History

Indian history and culture is colorful, ancient and dynamic, spanning back to the beginning of human civilization on this planet of Earth. Indian history flourished nearly five thousand years back along the Indus river valley. The twin cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were ruled by priests and the held the rudiments of Hinduism.

Indian History is one which is punctuated by constant integration with migrating peoples and that too with the diverse cultures that surround India. Well placed in the heart of Central Asia, History in India has an effect of cultures from China to Europe, and the most significant Asian connection with the Culture of Africa.

These civilizations of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are known to possess a sophisticated lifestyle, a great sense of aesthetics values, an extra ordinary knowledge of town infra structure planning and an undecipherable script language. At one given time of the history, The Indus civilization was expanded to more than a million square kilometers across the Indus river valley. It existed and flourished around the same time as the ancient civilizations of Egypt and Sumer but far outlasted them. Surviving for over a thousand years the Indus valley civilisation fell to tectonic upheavals in about 1700 BC, which caused a series of floods.

Arrival of Aryans around 1500 BC, can be mentioned as the final blow to the already collapsing Indus valley civilization. At the dawn of Vedic ages they came from the North and soon spread through major parts of India bringing with them their faith, cultures and religious beliefs. These two phases of time are described as Pre-Vedic and Vedic periods of Indian history. It is in the Vedic period that Hinduism arose and this as well the time when four Vedas or the important religious books of Hinduism were complied.

Then comes the 567 B.C., Mahatma Budh, the founder of the Buddhist religion Gautama Buddha was born in India. Bhagwan Mahavir, who founded the Jain religion, also lived during that time. Indian subcontinent is full of caves and monuments devoted to these religions and are worth visiting them.

The most famous and greatest King of Indian history, Maurya King Ashoka ruled from 273-232 B.C. over a large kingdom stretching from Kashmir to Peshawar in the North and northwest from Mysore in the South and Orissa in the East. Ashoka led the Mauryan Empire to take over almost all of what is now modern India. This great emperor also converted to Buddhism and built the group of monuments at Sanchi (Awarded as World Heritage Sites by UNESCO). The Ashoka pillar situated at Sarnath has also been adopted as national emblem of India and the Dharma Chakra of the Ashoka Pillar adorns the Indian national Flag.

In the Following centuries, India suffered a series of Invasions and as well fell under the spell of foreign rulers which includes Sakas and many others. After around 400 years they were followed by Guptas. Kalidas, the world famous poet and dramatist of Sanskrit and author of Shakuntalam, Kuamar sambhavam and Meghadutam is believed to have adorned the Guptas court. Also the greatest mathematicians like Aryabhatta and astronomers like Varahmihir lived during this period.

While Guptas were ruling in the North, south part of India was managed by many different Hindu emperors, the Cholas, the Pandvas and the Cheras spread and grew, trading with other nations of Europe and Asia till the late 1100.

Christianity knocked at the door of India at about the same time from Europe. Historians mentioned that St. Thomas the Apostle arrived in India in 52 A.D. It was even before the Jewish religion arrived on India's shores.

Around the 7th Century A.D. a group of Parsees (Zoroastrians) landed in Gujarat and became an integral part of the large mix of religions on India today. This added the multi cultural importance to the Indian society.

In the 15th century Guru Nanak (First Guru of Sikh’s Ten Gurus) laid the foundation of the Sikh religion in Punjab. He was a master with different and carried a modern thought of equality among different Genders, Religions, Race and colors.

A ruler from Afghanistan named Mohammed of Ghori, came into India In 1192 and captured various places in the northern Indian including the area of Delhi. When he left, one of his generals in charge became the first Sultan of Delhi. During this time Islam, was introduced into a major part of Northern India. It may be mentioned that even before that, just after the period of the prophet, Islam was brought to the western coast of India by Arab traders and flourished in what is now called Kerala in modern India.

Delhi Sultanate took control of the major parts of North India over the next 150-200 years, till Timur, who was called "Timur the Lame" or "Tamberlane" came from Turkey in 1398 to attack India. He and his army stole most of the valuables that they could carry with them and left again, and after that the Delhi Sultanate was never so strong again. Soon the Mughals, who came from Iran, came in and took control of the northern India.

In 1336, the Hindu Vijayanagar Empire was set up and became very successful and strong in the southern India.

The Britishers and the Europeans – from the European countries French, Portuguese, Dutch, Danish and British - started arriving in the early 1600s. All of them controlled territories in the various parts all around India and made friends and enemies among India's rulers as they got more and more involved, with the Indian public and politics, but it was the British who eventually controlled most of India and finally made it one of their colonies.

India got its independence from Britain in 1947 after a long struggle led mostly Mahatma Gandhi with the great supports from the millions of freedom fighters from all over India who have sacrificed their lives for India. In the process of becoming independent, India also became two countries instead of one. Since 1947, independent India has made huge progress and coped with great problems, and has developed its industry and its agriculture, and has maintained a system of government which makes it the largest democracy in the world.